Anthropology & Sociology

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Anthropology (ANTH) Courses

Cultural anthropology attempts to make the diverse peoples and lifeways of the world understandable. It seeks to make the familiar strange and the strange familiar. This course introduces cultural anthropology, describing its methods, theories and research problems. While a major objective of the course it to review some of the debates and concepts central to contemporary cultural anthropology, attention also is given to the history of the discipline and its connections with Euro-American social thought.


Course description pending. 

Courses listed as Intermediate Topics in Anthropology are sophomore-level course topics offered on a temporary basis before being added to the approved curriculum.

ANTH 081: BORDERS AND BOUNDARIES, 3 credit hrs. 

According to some scholars, we are living in a world where state borders are increasingly obsolete. This view holds that international borders are becoming so porous that they no longer fulfill their role as barriers to the movement of goods, ideas, people, and as markers of the extent power of the state. Yet, border build-ups and massive deportations suggest that they are all the more relevant and that the state's power has not diminished. Other social processes like the policing of black and brown bodies, the nativist political rhetoric that stigmatizes Latin migrants and privileges some refugees over others suggests that borders remain relevant at social levels, beyond the nation-state. This class provides a solid overview of the study of borders and boundaries from within anthropology and beyond. Important questions we will consider include: What are borders and borderlands? How have they been created? Do borders produce a particular kind of culture? How are borders artifiacts of history and geography? How do borders change over time and what impact does change have on the lives of people? How are border people imagined, constructed, and exploited by individuals, governments, and corporations on both sides of the border? How do citizens of the borderlands themselves resist injustice and violence? In exploring these questions, we will consider various analytical and interdisciplinary approaches.

This course introduces the themes and theories central to feminist anthropology. It illustrates the emergence and implications of feminist perspectives for cultural anthropology by examining the distrinct ways anthropologists have approached the entanglement of gender, culture, and power. It begins by considering the marginalized history of women as both anthropologists and subjects of anthropological analyses. Against this background, it devotes attention to specific problems and strategies, including the body, sexuality, the state, kinship relations and economic production. Throughout, readings, class discussions and student projects seek not only to work through the awkward relationship between feminism and anthropology, but also to address the varieties of women's experiences and identities cross-culturally. Prereq.: Introductory course in anthropology, sociology, cultural studies or instructor's consent. Counts toward sociology and ANSO theory-intensive requirements. May be used as part of Women's Studies Concentration.

ANTH 125: TRAVELING CULTURES, 3 credit hrs.
This course explores transcultural processes, movements, and exchanges. Drawing on recent scholarship in anthropology, as well as sociology and cultural studies, we address the ways in which objects, ideas, peoples, and practices have accounted for these "travels." Prereq.: 6 hours credit in anthropology, sociology, cultural studies and/or multicultural studies, including an introductory anthropology or sociology course or instructor's consent.


This course will explore reproductive practices, policies, and polices in the U.S. and throughout the world. We will explore issues of fertility, contraception, pregnancy, childbirth, child rearing, and population policies legally and globally. We will consider local practices of human reproduction and production--the bearing and raising of children--in a transnational context, exploring the ways power relations shape social practices of family formation across the globe in various ways. The course will address such issues as sexuality, birth control, pregnancy, abortion, and adoption in the context of particular social and cultural traditions as they are affected by global power relations.

ANTH 140: ORAL HISTORY, 3 credit hrs.

This course will explore oral history as a transformative and collaborative research methodology. In the first part of the course, we will engage in readings and discussion of the role of oral history within the field of anthropology, ethical considerations, the importance of informed consent, and theoretical debates regarding the practice and methods of oral histories. We also will debate the methodological potential of oral history as a tool for social transformation and empowerment (of both the interviewer and interviewee). The second half of the course focuses more narrowly on the practice of oral histories; i.e. obtaining Institutional Review Board Human Subject Review approval, constructing an oral history interview protocol, conducting history interviews, transcription practices and techniques, and the production of web-based oral histories. Ideally you should choose a community leader, an elder, or an immigrant living in Des Moines. In the final third of the course, we will work together to transform interviews into written web- based oral histories. We will spend significant time discussing your progress, dilemmas, and strategies as we move through the process. You will be trained in Wordpress in order to complete this part of the assignment. In the final weeks of the course, we will reflect on the experience, focusing on the challenges and rewards of oral history as method. Our final meeting will include a presentation of oral histories and reception for our participants in the oral history project.

This course offers an overview of anthropological theory. Beginning in the mid-19th century, it traces the history of anthropological thought, contrasting distinct frameworks for making sense of cultural patterns, practices and precepts. As such it connects classical ideas with more recent innovations. Theoretical frameworks discussed include social evolution, functionalism, structuralism and a variety of post-structuralisms. Attention is given to the social and historical contexts framing anthropological theories. Prereq.: Introductory course in anthropology or sociology or instructor's consent. Counts torward SOCIOLOGY and ANSO theory-intensive requirements.


This course will explore transracial adoption as it intersects with race, gender, poverty, and reproduction in the US, focusing in particular on the adoption of Black and mixed race children into white families. We will consider this topic through a broad range of disciplinary perspectives, including racial-ethnic studies, sociology, women’s and gender studies, anthropology, history, memoir, and film/video. Transracial adoption, and adoption more generally, are typically represented in U.S. media through romantic, mythical narratives that celebrate the formation of “color-blind” “forever families.” While we will certainly consider the perspectives of people who appreciate and advocate such views, we will be actively complicating such perspectives by considering the elements often left out of public narratives. We will be exploring transracial adoption as a contemporary social issue that fundamentally requires a critical perspective in order to understand the ways it is shaped by a broad range of social interests and power relations in the United States and abroad. We will explore the ways a critical perspective on race, gender, reproduction, and power relations reframe public narratives about the transfer of children from poor mothers to middle class and wealthy families.

ANTH 150: SPECIAL TOPICS, 3 credit hrs.
These courses are upper-level course topics offered on a temporary basis before being added to the approved curriculum. Prerequisites vary.

This course will be an immersion in methods of qualitative fieldwork and digital video as cultural critique. Students will be introduced to ethnographic participant-observation and interviewing methods, as well as video editing techniques. We will travel to the San Francisco Bay area and conduct research with the International Rescue Committee. During the three-week J-term course students will work in small groups to conduct ethnographic research, document it on videotape, and produce short video essays that will be put on both the IRC website for community outreach and the Drake Cultures of Engagement site. This course will serve as an introduction to qualitative interview-based research and critical digital storytelling. Cross-listed with SCSS 153.

Ethnography is a methodological approach and a literary genre, literally writing about people. This course introduces the concepts, intellectual traditions, ethical issues and methodological techniques central to the ethnographic study of culture. In this methods-intensive course, students are required to conduct field research in a specific social context using techniques discussed in class. Prereq: Entry-level course in sociology, anthropology or cultural studies or consent of the instructor. Counts toward Sociology and ANSO methods-intensive requirements.

ANTH 158: REPRESENTING RACE, 0-3 credit hrs.
This methods-intensive course will introduce students to the interviewing methods associated with life history research, as well as the issues of representation involved in the writing and filming of people's lives and identities. Prereq; Entry-level sociology or anthropology course or instructor's consent.


This course provides a critical understanding of the causes, features, and consequences of political violence as a phenomenon of the current global landscape. We ask questions about what violence is, how violence is produced and reproduced, what makes violence ""political,"" and what is its scope. We respond to these questions by looking at some of the main theoretical conceptualizations of violence (Hobbes, Hegel, Marx, Fanon, Arendt, and Bourdieu, among others) and by exploring case studies from across the globe. The course examines various forms of violence (extraordinary, discreet, structural, everyday, symbolic), their effects upon social structure and life-worlds, as well as how individuals and communities have responded and reworked their experience of violence.

This course is an introduction to the key concepts, theories, and methods of medical anthropology. Medical anthropology examines affliction and healing in a cross-cultural perspective. It emphasizes the understanding of how health and healing are shaped by both cultural and biological processes. It also analyzes the relations among health, illness, social institutions, power, and cultural representations. Medical anthropologists examine the ways in which global processes--health policies, epidemics, war and violence, inequalities--affect the life of individuals and communities. They take us into refugee camps, hospitals, zones of social abandonment, factories, and strees across the world and in our community. This course will focus on three broad topics. We will start by discussing how health-related issues, including disease and treatment, are far more than narrow biological phenomenon. By examining specific ethnographic cases, we will see how these processes are all heavily influenced by cultural and social factors as well. We will then grapple with the Foucauldian concept of "biopower" by means of specific ethnographic applications. By reading about colonial and postcolonial governance in the global South, the "construction" of mental illness, current national and global policies toward asylums seekers, and the use of pharmaceuticals, we will reflect upon the ways in which medicine can be an instrument of domination, discipline, and surveillance. The final section of the course discusses the contributions that medical anthropology can make to increase access to health services and to improve--i.e., humanize--health care in the U.S. and across the world.

ANTH 180: RITUAL AND MYTH, 3 credit hrs.
Myth and ritual are aspects of all human societies, ours included. What roles do myths and ritual play in human experience and everyday life? Why do we need them? Are myths and rituals ways of responding to existential questions? Or reflecting on the fact they can't be responded to? Do they reproduce or subvert social orders? This course will address these questions by drawing on readings from history, religious studies, anthropology, sociology, and film studies. We look at some specific cases of societies experiencing turmoil and violence that cannot possibly be understood except in reference to local myths and rituals. We then conclude with a look at mythical and ritual phenomena in American society, focusing on urban myths, vampire legends, and UFO stories to reflect on what these stories tell about "us."

ANTH 197: INDEPENDENT STUDY, 1-3 credit hrs.
Directed independent study and or research in a problem area selected by the student and not otherwise provided for in a regularly scheduled course.


Sociology (SOC) Courses

A survey of the substantive areas of study and the theoretical and methodological tools of the discipline of sociology.

SOC 042: SOCIOLOGICAL INQUIRY, 3 credit hrs.

Course description is pending.

Environmental sociology examines the relationship between human communities and the natural environment in the modern world. In particular, it focuses on how political, economic and cultural institutions shape our interactions with the natural environment. This course also consdiers how societies are responding to environmental problems on a global and local level, with special attention to the intersection of environmental problems and social inequality. Specific topics of study may include industrial pollution, environmental ideologies, global climate change, and natural disasters, among others.

In this course, students learn to think theoretically about the relations between self and society, through the study of theories in sociology and related fields regarding subjectivity, social identity and power. Approaches covered include symbolic interactionism, social constructionism, poststructuralism and psychoanalysis. Students examine these theories by considering relevant topics such as cultural identity and difference, media images and postmodernity. Prereq.: Entry-level sociology or anthropology course or instructor's consent. Counts toward SOCIOLOGY and ANSO theory-intensive requirements.

This course is designed to familiarize students with women's experiences as well as with the ways in which society shapes notions of gender. The course also provides ways to identify and analyze how a society's notions of gender shape the ways in which a society sees and organizes itself. Class members examine the construction of women's social roles and their personal experiences, discussing points of congruence and dissonance. In this interdisciplinary course, reading and discussion material are drawn from fields such as religion, sociology, psychology, political science and literature, so students may examine the views, status and contributions of women. Class sessions consist of lectures, guest speakers, films, and discussion. Cross-listed with WGS 075. 

These courses cover topics being offered on a one-time basis, or for the first time, before being added formally to the curriculum. Prerequisites vary.

SOC 080: SOCIAL PROBLEMS, 3 credit hrs.
Why do we care about some social problems and yet ignore others that are possibly more harmful? This course is not an in-depth study of any one social problem nor is it a survey of social problems in our society. Rather this course will examine how and why we think about social problems and how we respond to them (or do not respond). Using the theoretical perspective of social constructionism, students will examine how social problems are socially constructed and how different organizations and constituencies attempt to frame them in different ways. Students will learn that the way we define and interpret social problems is based on human activity and claims-making, which both reflect and perpetuate larger cultural and social forces. The principles and concepts learned in this course will be useful for critical analysis of social problems, statistics, inequality, public policy, politics, media, advocacy, and popular opinion. The course fulfills a theory-intensive requirement for sociology majors. Prereq: Entry level sociology or anthropology course or instructor consent.

SOC 081: MEDICAL SOCIOLOGY, 3 credit hrs.
This course applies sociological principles to health, illness, and health care. In order for students to fully develop an understanding in this context, a variety of perspectives will be explored and critiqued including that of patients, providers and society. This draws on foundational disciplines at the broader level and frames them into the biomedical experience. For example, sociological constructs of age, gender, ethnicity, and social class; psychosocial aspects of personal illness experience, historical and political perspectives of dominance, regulation and governance of providers and health care organizations will be the multidisciplinary topics covered. Other topics may include but are not limited to: history of 'western' medicine, models of illness, stress and well-being, social stratification of illness, health demography, medicalization and de-medicalization of illness, disability, and patient-provider relationships. A combination of reading, discussion, reflective activities, and paper/project composition will be used to facilitate comprehension of the course material.

Sociology of Everyday Life focuses on the daily details of how people interact with each other and the consequences of those interactions. Social interactions help create and maintain relationships, social divisions, institutions, social structure, and cultural forces that make up our world and shape our differing subjective experiences. Some of the topics will include interpersonal relationships, emotion work, self-narratives, negotiating a working consensus, saving face, politics of language, identity, constructing normality and deviance, institutional talk, impression management, social control, and politics of reality. Prerequisite is SCSS 001 or instructor’s permission.

SOC 105: RACE, GENDER AND POVERTY, 3 credit hrs.
This course focuses on the way that race, gender, disability, and poverty are organized and configured through public policy, social structure, and public discourse. Prereq; Entry-level sociology or anthropology course or instructor consent. May be used as part of Women's and Gender Studies Concentration.

SOC 122: MAKING FAMILIES PUBLIC, 3 credit hrs.

In this course we will explore relationships between families and the public sphere. The complexities of understanding how families are both shaped by and shape public culture lead us to an interdisciplinary approach to exploring families in context that includes attention to media, public policy, law, and community engagement. Contemporary concerns over families what they look like, who they are, how they are shaped by society, how their legitimacy is legislated have become subjects of fierce public debates in recent years. We will explore in particular the avenues through which the state legislates families, public debates emerge in the media, and citizens engage in public actions and dialogues over the meaning and shape of contemporary families. Family has always been a site of shifting and contested meanings. Society has investments in defining and regulating families in particular ways, and families, in turn have their own stakes in how they are seen, recognized, and provided for in the public realm of rights, benefits, and obligations associated with citizenship. Indeed, family will be explored as an arena of public debate about the meaning of citizenship. We will, as a class, consider academic and political debates about the meanings of family, as well as participate in public education and community engagement around contemporary local and national issues concerning the diversity of families.

This course examines various ways that sociologists think about social structure and social institutions. Sociologists use the terms "social structure" and "social institutions" refer to broad patterns of social organization that influence the lives of individuals, sometimes without their knowledge. Drawing from important theoretical works, we will explore the sorts of structures and institutions that sociologists believe characterize modern societies, as well as considering where these structures come from and how they change over time. Topics include social stratification, systems of norms and values, language and culture, bureaucracy, and social conflict and revolution. Sociology and ANSO majors may use this course to satisfy one of their "theory-intensive" requirements. Prerequisite is one sociology or anthropology course or instructor's permission.

SOC 137: WOMEN, MADNESS AND CULTURE, 3 credit hrs.
This course explores the relationship between gender and socio-cultural definitions of mental health and illness, and examines the history of the treatment of women within the major settings of the mental health system; psychiatry, psychoanalysis and asylum. The first major goal is to understand the social relations of power within which psychiatry emerged and within which women became defined as "hysterical", "irrational" or "mad". A second goal is to chart the relationship between women's social roles and the experience and treatment of mental illness, making use of autobiographical and fictional accounts by women, films and other materials. Prereq.: One entry level sociology or anthropology course or Introduction to Women's Studies (WGS 075/SCSS 075/ENG 075) or instructor consent. May be used as part of Women's and Gender Studies Concentration.

SOC 140: YOUTH AND CRIME, 3 credit hrs.
A sociological study of the youthful offender in American society. Special emphasis is placed on theories of youthful crime, societal responses that have impacts on definitions of youthful crime and subsequent public policy, research methodologies employed in understanding the quality and quantity of youthful crime, predicting youthful crime, and social control associated with youthful behavior defined as being negative. Prereq.: Entry-level sociology or anthropology course or instructor's consent.

SOC 145: FOOD AND SOCIETY, 3 credit hrs.
The aim of this course is to unearth and analyze the social context of food production, distribution, and consumption. Students will examine social identities represented and reproduced in food consumption, food regulation and food-based activism, and cultural differences in the preparation and eating of food, among other topics. The course will focus mainly on food in the United States but may also consider comparisons with other countries. Materials for the course include works written by sociologists and anthropologists as well as popular examinations of the food industry and food policy. Pre-req: one entry-level sociology or anthropology course.

SOC 146: RESTORATIVE JUSTICE, 3 credit hrs.
Restorative justice is a perspective that views crime as a harm against people and the community, which needs to be addressed through the involvement of offenders, victims, and the community. This course provides an introduction to the principles and practices behind restorative justice. The course is designed to allow students to struggle along with the experts in trying to navigate the opportunities and challenges, the success stories and the pitfalls that accompany restorative justice programs. In the process, students will explore questions about justice, crime, imprisonment, punishment, rehabilitation, forgiveness, and the purpose of a legal system.

SOC 150: SELECTED TOPICS, 3 credit hrs.
Courses listed as selected topics in sociology are either one-time offerings or are courses that have not been added formally to the curriculum. Prerequisites vary. Availability of graduate credit is course-specific.

SOC 151: CRIMINOLOGY, 3 credit hrs.
General facts and theories with respect to crime, the criminal and his or her treatment by society; emphasis is on the theories of causation and criminal behavior and problems in prison treatment, probation, and parole. Prereq.: Entry-level sociology or anthropology course or instructor's consent.

SOC 154: POVERTY AND SOCIETY, 3 credit hrs.
A focus on a sociological exploration of the relationship between poverty and current social concerns, the changing nature of poverty, changes in social responses to poverty, with a special emphasis on public policy implications. Prereq.: Entry-level sociology or anthropology course or instructor's consent.

Descriptive and inferential statistics most often used in social science research are examined, with an emphasis on statistics as communication tools; includes development of skills in formula reading, interpreting statistical outcomes and selecting appropriate statistics for analysis of various research questions and data. Counts toward SOCIOLOGY and ANSO methods-intensive requirements.

Survey of selected research methods used in sociology, with varying emphasis on survey, documentary, observational, archival and other techniques, both qualitative and quantitative. Counts toward SOCIOLOGY and ANSO methods- intensive requirements.

This course examines the organization and experience of work in the modern American economy, using both classical and contemporary sociological writings. We will pay special attention to how the workplace and labor market are connected to inequalities of race, class, and gender. The course also will examine the growth of flexible manufacturing and service sector employment in the United States and the corresponding rise of contingent and insecure work. Finally, we will discuss several perspectives on the relationship between work and family structure.

SOC 161: RACE AND ETHNICITY, 3 credit hrs.
An examination of the nature of social inequality based upon conceptions of race and ethnicity. Emphasis is on the economic and power relationships that have characterized the history of racial and ethnic inequality in the United States. Prereq.: Entry-level sociology or anthropology course or instructor's consent. May be used as part of Women's and Gender Studies Concentration.

SOC 162: WOMEN AND WORK, 3 credit hrs.

Course description is pending. 

SOC 165: THE ART OF THE INTERVIEW, 0-3 credit hrs.
Qualitative interviewing as a sociological method allows the researcher to look at the complex interpretive practices participants use to make sense of life events. As a method, it is distinct from surveys, polls, or journalistic interviews. In this course, readings, discussion, and assignments will teach qualitative interviewing for two purposes. First, students will develop skills in this important sociological method. Second, students will explore the Drake engaged citizen topic for the current year through qualitative interviewing and collective interpretation of the interviews.

This course is an exercise in the application of sociological theory, concepts and methods to the study of African-Americans. The focus of the course is the socio-historical context of the African-American experience. Students examine the social institutions of United States society as they relate to the African-American experience and the subcultural institutions established by African-Americans. Prerq.: Entry-level sociology or anthropology course or instructor's consent.

SOC 170: DEVIANCE, 3 credit hrs.
In its broadest sense, the course is about how definitions of “badness” are created in society and culture and attached to people, actions, places, and things. The sociological concept “deviance” can take the place of the word “badness” in that sentence. This process is political and has a great deal to do with power, including the power of the state. The premise of the course is that deviance is always relative to time, place, power,  authority, and even person. Prereq.: Entry-level sociology or anthropology course or instructor's consent. Counts toward SOC and ANSO theory-intensive requirements. AOI: Values and Ethics. LPS fulfillment.

SOC 171: GRIEF AND LOSS, 3 credit hrs.
In this course, students will learn how narratives of grief are constructed, experienced, debated, politicized, and pathologized. We will examine various aspects of grief including cultural difference, social policing, media portrayals, and theoretical debates. Students will learn how tragedy and grief are used to sell politics and products and what implications this has on individual and cultural understandings of loss. This course is reading and writing intensive. Prereq: one entry-level sociology or anthropology course or instructor consent.

SOC 174: FEMINIST THEORIES, 3 credit hrs.
This course is a critical, in-depth examination of contemporary feminist theories of subjectivity. The central concern is for students to gain an understanding of the relationships between sexual difference, subjectivity and social relations of power. Students explore theories that address the psychic and subjective roots of relations of gender, power and domination, as well as the socio- historical dimensions of gender subjectivity. Materials and the approach used in the course are interdisciplinary, drawing on sociology, literary criticism, film studies, philosophy and psychoanalysis. Prereq.: Introduction to Women's and Gender Studies (WGS 75/SCSS 75/ENG 75) or one entry-level sociology or anthropology course or instructors consent. Counts toward SOC and ANSO theory-intensive requirements. May be used as part of Women's and Gender Studies Concentration.

SOC 175: THEORIES OF INEQUALITY, 3 credit hrs.
This course examines class, race, gender, sexuality, and disability inequality in the United States through exploration of sociological theory. Through service learning, reading, writing and classroom discussion, students will critically examine social theory to explain stratification in the United States as well as responses to structural inequality. Counts toward SOC and ANSO theory-intensive requirement.

SOC 176: DOCUMENTING LIVES, 3 credit hrs.
This theory-intensive course will draw on a broad range of disciplinary perspectives to consider questions concerning how to document, understand, and interpret the life experience of human beings, primarily in the contemporary United States. We will focus in particular on the documentation of women's lives. Documentary film, popular culture, documentary writing, ethnography, feminism, psychology, anthropology, sociology literature, and memoir will be considered in exploring how to represent the ways that such axes of difference as race, gender, ethnicity, sexuality, class, age, and disability shape individual and group identities. Course materials will focus on the ways that society organizes categories of identity and treats people differently based on such categories, as well as how such aspects of identity shape individual conceptions of self. Counts toward SOC and ANSO theory-intensive requirement. May be used as part of Women's and Gender Studies Concentration.

SOC 177: GENDER AND VIOLENCE, 3 credit hrs.
This course examines gender and violence, including the social construction of the problem, interdisciplinary theoretical explanations, and the social and cultural contexts. This course also explores how media, politics, and popular discourse impact policy for intervention and prevention, and individual understandings of gender and violence. Prereq: SCSA 2-25 or SCSS 1-25 or SCSS 75/ENG 75/WGS 75 or instructor consent. May be used as part of Women's and Gender Studies Concentration.

SOC 179: MASS INCARCERATION, 3 credit hrs.

The rate of imprisonment has rapidly increased since the 1970s with the implementation of the War on Drugs, making the United States the world’s leader in incarceration. This course will examine mass incarceration in the United States, its origins, trends, and the laws and policies that have directly and indirectly contributed to it. We will explore the effects of mass incarceration on society and attempt to answer the following questions: How did we get here? What led to the U.S. leading all nations in incarceration? How has racial and class inequality in incarceration become so glaring in incarceration? What are the consequences of high rates of incarceration and what can we do about it?

SOC 181: DEATH AND SOCIETY, 3 credit hrs.
How do we respond to death and why? Using a sociological lens, this course examines historical and contemporary perspectives on death, dying, and bereavement. Students will expolore variations in attitudes and rituals concerning death, dying, funerals, and memorialization. Though the experiences of death, dying, and bereavement are intensely personal, they are shaped by social, political, legal, and cultural forces. These experiences also vary by culture, social class, age, race, gender, and religion. Other topics include the politics of death and the influence of the funeral industry. This course is reading and writing intensive. Prerequisite: one entry-level sociology or anthropology course or instructor consent.

SCSS 196: TRAVEL STUDY SEMINAR, 1-6 credit hrs.
The course combines focused domestic and/or international travel and critical inquiry themed by social and cultural questions specific to the site/s visited. Student work typically includes pre-trip course assignments, in-trip lectures and discussions, and post-trip completion and submission/presentation of written work. The seminar is led by faculty who design, oversee, and direct the course and evaluate student work. Students are required to revlect on themselves as observers of the socialcultural sciences, artifacts, and peoples encountered, and they are asked to consider the implications fo their presence and participation in the inquiry for the nature of the information they produce as well as the ethics of that production and subsequent use. No prerequisites.

SOC 197: INDEPENDENT STUDY, 1-3 credit hrs.
Directed independent study and/or research in a problem area selected by the student and not otherwise provided for in a regularly scheduled course. Prereq.: Sociology major, senior standing, overall GPA of at least 3.0, completion of not less than 18 hours of sociology courses, instructor's consent and department approval.

SOC 198: INTERNSHIP, 3 credit hrs.
The internship provides an opportunity for practical application of theoretical and research issues in approved work situations, with faculty supervision, guidance and evaluation. Prereq.: Sociology major, completion of 15 hours of sociology courses and 60 hours of college credit with overall GPA of at least 2.75, instructor's consent and department approval. The internship is graded and may be counted toward major.

SOC 199: SENIOR CAPSTONE, 1 credit hr.
Senior sociology and anthropology/sociology majors complete their Senior Capstone requirement by enrolling in SOC/SCSS 199 in conjunction with a flagged Senior Experience Course. Senior Experience Courses are identified in the schedule of courses for each semester. In consultation with the instructor of the Senior Experience Course, students design their Capstone Experience. All students completing their capstone during an academic year participate in the planning of an annual colloquium and present their papers/projects/ experiences at this public event. Prereq.: Senior sociology or anthropology/sociology majors.

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